In many of our cases involving brain injury, we have creatively utilized sophisticated medical technology to demonstrate the extent of brain damage which has occurred. In the courtroom, we have presented images of our clients’ own brain scans in conjunction with medical records as evidence of brain injuries. We have also utilized highly respected medical professionals to testify to the on-going physical, psychological and emotional issues related to a client’s brain injury.
Additional technologies applied to a client’s case may include: Neuropsychological Testing, CT Scans, MRI’s, PET, SPECT and EEG Scans, Computer Animations, Timelines, Charts, 3-D Neuro-Imaging, Bio-mechanical Animations to Illustrate Injuries.
Neuropsychological tests are specifically designed tasks used to measure a psychological function known to be linked to a particular brain structure or pathway. These test usually involve the systematic administration of clearly defined procedures in a formal environment. Neuropsychological tests are typically administered to a single person working with an examiner in a quiet office environment, free from distractions. As such, it can be argued that neuropsychological tests, at times, offer an estimate of a person’s peak level of cognitive performance. Neuropsychological tests are a core component in the process of conducting a neuropsychological assessment.
Computerized Axial Tomography (CT)
A CT scan is a non-invasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose brain injuries. Special x-ray equipment is used to produce multiple images of the inside of the head. A computer joins the images together to display cross-sectional views of the area being studied. CT scanning provides physicians with more detailed information on head injuries, stroke, brain tumors and other brain diseases than regular radiographs (x-rays).
Single Photon Emission Computerized Tomography (SPECT)
Single Photon Emission Computerized Tomography demonstrates brain function by mapping blood flow to the brain. For the performance of SPECT, a flow tracer or a receptor-binding substance is tagged with a radionuclide tracer and is assumed to accumulate in different areas of the brain in proportion to the rate of delivery of nutrients to that volume of brain tissue. Using a gamma camera and the techniques of CT, a three-dimensional image of the radionuclide in the brain is obtained.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Magnetic resonance imaging is a non-invasive, usually painless, medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. MRI imaging uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce detailed pictures of organs, soft tissues, bone and virtually all other internal body structures. Detailed MRI images allow physicians to better evaluate parts of the body and certain diseases which may not be assessed adequately with other imaging methods, such as x-ray, ultra-sound or computerized tomography (also called CT or CAT scanning).
Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
Positron Emission Tomography measures brain function or metabolism. A PET scan allows a physician to look inside the living brain using a positron emitter created from a Fluorine-18 sugar molecule. The positron emitting Fluorine-18 sugar molecule is injected into the patient and the circulatory system carries it to the brain. Images of the tracer concentration within the brain are then reconstructed by computer analysis. The final result of this is a 2-D or 3-D picture that illustrates the brain’s metabolic function using color. Areas of the brain higher in metabolism are represented by hot colors, such as red. Areas of the brain lower in metabolism are represented by cooler colors, such as black and blue. Intermediate metabolism is represented by colors, such as green and orange.
Electroencephalograph or (EEG)
An EEG measures the very tiny changes in the electrical potential associated with neural activity in the cerebral cortex and is typically used to detect seizure activity in brain-injured individuals. The graphed electrical activity is picked up by scalp electrodes. The EEG identifies epileptic activities (paroxysmal abnormalities containing spikes or sharp waves) and is used during surgery to localize the epileptogenic source for excision.
Three dimensional (3-D), computer-generated videos of our clients’ brains have been used to give juries a rarely seen perspective on our clients’ injuries. The use of these cutting-edge visual aids have helped provide juries with the tangible evidence they need to fully understand an invisible brain injury.
The following animation shows a three-dimensional view of our client’s brain
Bio-mechanical Animations to Illustrate Injuries
Attorneys in our firm have used bio-mechanical animations on numerous occasions to illustrate how clients may have sustained an brain injury during an accident. Showing this type of demonstrative evidence allows juries to visualize an accident and better understand the forces on the body which are at work during an impact.
The following animation shows how centrifugal force and inertia affect the brain and cervical spine during an accident